Introduction to Client/Server Configuration

  • NSHIMIYUMWUNGELI Antoine Marie Zacharie
  • technology
Introduction to Client/Server Configuration

When you have finished installing Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, a window titled Initial Configuration Tasks may come up:

The Initial Configuration Tasks window is used to perform the most fundamental or routine operations of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2. This window displays when the computer starts. If you don't want to come up like that, click the bottom check box. If it doesn't come up when the computer starts, to restore this window, click Start -> Run, type oobe and press Enter.

After installing the operating system, there are a few things you should (must) do before continuing:

  • You must make sure the computer is connected to the Internet
  • If this is the first computer, you must make it a domain controller (this is not a requirement if the computer will not be a domain controller; if you don't (yet) know what a domain controller is, don't worry about that now)

The Server Name

Every computer in the network must have a name. The installation gives a default name that you can accept or change. Some installations, such as Small Business Server, prompt you to accept or specify the name of the server. After installing Microsoft Windows Server 2008, to check and/or change the name of the server:

  • In the Initial Configuration Tasks window, click Provide Computer Name and Domain:

  • In the Computer Name property page, click Change...
  • Accept or change the name of the server

  • Click OK
  • A dialog box will ask you to restart your computer. Click OK

  • Click Close
  • Click Restart Now

Network Discovery

Network discovery makes it possible for a computer to allow other computers to "see" it on the network. To take care of it on the server, start Windows Explorer and click Network (you can click the Start button and click the Network option). A message should appear under the toolbar stating "Network discovery is turned off...":

Click that message and click "Turn on network discovery and file sharing":

You should receive a message box presenting you two options:

Click "Yes, turn on network discovery...". If some computers are already installed and connected to the same router, their names may appear in the Network node in Windows Explorer.

Connecting the Server to the Internet

Normally, when you have fiinished installing the server, if everything went alright and the computer is connected to a router, you should be connected to the Internet. To test it, you can start the browser (Internet Explorer), set the address to http://msdn.microsoft.com, and press Enter.

Windows Updates

You should make sure your installation of the operating system can regularly get its updates from Microsoft. To take care of this:

  1. Click Start -> All Programs -> Windows Update
  2. A windows will display, asking you to enable automatic updates.
    Click Turn On Automatic Updates

You may be asked to install new updates. Do.

Assigning an IP Address to the Server

Every computer on the network needs an IP address so that other computers of the network can locate it (just like every house needs a physical address so that the post office and other people can find it).

A computer has two main ways of getting an IP address:

  • A server, called a DHCP server (the word "server" here represents an application; it doesn't have to be a different server than the one you installed), can automatically assign (provide) an IP address to each computer
  • You can manually assign an IP address to each computer. Of course, you need to know a little bit about something named TCP/IP, which means you would need to know how to create and assign IP addresses

To assign an IP address to a server (that runs Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2):

  • In the Initial Configuration Tasks, click Configure Networking
  • On the Taskbar, click Start and click Network. In the left frame, right-click Network and click Properties. Click Local Area Connection. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Properties

To assign an IP address to the server:

  1. Click Start
  2. Right-click Network and click Properties

  3. Click Local Area Connection
  4. Click Details. Make note (on a piece of paper) of the address on the right side of IPv4 Address:



    (For our example, we are building a small network and we will just use a small range of IP addresses. In the real world or for a large network, you would need to actually know TCP/IP, design a range of IP addresses you plan to use, then assign those IP addresses, or design a way to assign the IP addresses to the computers)
  5. Click Close
  6. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Properties
  7. In the checked list box, click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)

  8. Click Properties
  9. Click Use the Following IP Address
  10. Type the IP address you want the server to use. For our example, and based on the above dialog box, we type 192.168.001.001
  11. Press Tab
  12. Type the subnet mask (normally, it should be added automatically when you press Tab from the previous IP address text box) and press Tab
  13. Type the default gateway address (use the first and the second octets of the IP address you had provided (such as 192.168) and use 001.001 for the other two bytes)
  14. Provide the Preferred DNS server address (we use 127.0.0.1 for our example) and the Alternate DNS Server address (we leave ours empty)

  15. Click Advanced to check the values that were put in the IP Settings and DNS property pages
  16. Click OK
  17. Click OK
  18. Click Close
  19. Click Close

A Domain Name System (DNS)

As you may know already, whether it belongs to a network or not, every computer must have a name. Furthermore, if it belongs to a network, a computer must provide a way to be found by other computers. This can be done using its name. This means that other computers must be able to contact other fellow computers using the names.

In a network, to exchange information or to share resources, computers communicate using languages also called protocols. One of the languages or protocols is called Transmission Control Protocol or TCP. Another language is called Internet protocol or IP. These two languages are usually used together in a combination named TCP/IP.

To locate each other using TCP/IP, each computer must have an address, named an IP address, made of a combination of numbers separated by periods. An example is 192.168.1.248. Each computer has such a number (address) but the number (the address) assigned to a computer must be unique among the numbers used by other computers. As a result, a computer can be contacted using its address. In a large network with dozens or hundreds or thousands of computers, it can be combursome to keep track of these complex numbers. A solution is to use software, named a server, so that, if you provide the name of the computer, the server can "translate" the name into the corresponding computer that use the actual IP address of the computer.

The Domain Name System, named DNS, is a language (again, named a protocol) that allows the server that receives (or is provided) the name of a computer. Then the server checks a list (called a table) that has the names of computers and their corresponding IP addresses. That way, the server can locate, through the IP address, the intended computer.

To make this description possible in your network, you can install an application named DNS server. To do this:

  1. From the Initial Configuration Tasks, click Add Roles
  2. (an alternative is to click Start -> Server Manager, then in the left frame, right-click Roles and click Add Roles)
    • In the first page of the wizard, titled Before You Begin, read the text and click Next
    • In the second page of the wizard, click the check box of DNS Server

    • Click Next
    • In the third page of the wizard, titled DNS Server, read the text and click Next
    • Click Install

Creating a Domain Controller

If you are creating a new network, one of your computers should (must) be able to manage access to the computers and resources that belong to the network. That is, a central computer, named a server, must be able to allow or deny access (this is called authentication) of the network and its resources to people. That central computer, that server, is named a domain controller. The first server you install usually should (must) be made a domain controller.

To create a domain controller, you must promote your server (to a domain controller). To do this:

  1. Open the Command Prompt (Start -> Command Prompt, or Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Command Prompt
    1. Type CD\ and press Enter to return to the root of the disc
    2. Type dcpromo (which stands for Promote This Computer to a Domain Controller) and press Enter
    3. A small window will come up:

A wizard will start:

  1. In the first page of the wizard, read the text and click Next

    • In the second page of the wizard, read the text and click Next



    • In the third page of the wizard, click Create a New Domain In a New Forest

    • Click Next
    • The next page asks you to create a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN). Enter a name made of two or three parts. Examples are example.local or learning.example.com. Remember that the computer already has a name and every computer on the network has or will have a name. So this is what will happen with the name you give: For our example, we are using functionx.local

      • If you give a name in two parts such as example.local or example.com, the network name to use from a browser to access this computer will be ThisComputerName.example.local or ThisComputerName.example.com. This means that this is the name the other computers will use to "intranetly" or "webly" access its resources. This means that, later on, you can create a web site stored in a computer (in a server or a workstation), share resources of that computer, and make those resources available so that other computers can access those resources from a browser
      • If you give a name in three (or more) parts such as support.example.local or intranet.example.local or WhatSUp.example.local or support.example.com or intranet.example.com or WhatSUp.example.com or anything like those, the network name of this computer will be ThisComputerName.support.example.local or ThisComputerName.intranet.example.local or ThisComputerName.WhatSUp.example.local or ThisComputerName.support.example.com or ThisComputerName.intranet.example.com or ThisComputerName.WhatSUp.example.com. That's the name the other computers will use to access this computer from a browser

      There is no rule as to whether the name you use (in two parts or more parts) is bad. You just have to decide and keep the scheme in mind.

    • After specifying the FQDN, click Next. A window will start some operations:

    • When a dialog box comes up, read its text and click Next

    • On the next page, read the text and click Next. A window will come and start performing some operations:

    • Click Next

    • Click Next. If you didn't create (assign) an IP address on (to) the server, a dialog box will come up, about IP address assignment:



      In you didn't assign an IP address to the server, it means you plan to use a DHCP server that will automatically assign IP addresses to the computers of the network. In this case, click Yes, ...
    • A dialog box comes up

    • Read the text and click Yes
    • In the next page of the wizard, click Nest

    • The next page asks you to specify the administrator's password. Click the Password text box and type the password
    • Click the Confirm Password text box and type the same password

    • After specifying the password, click Next

    • Click Next. A new dialog box will startperforming an operation:



      This may take a while

    • Click Finish
    • A new dialog box will ask you to reboot:



      Therefore, click Restart Now
    • When the computer comes up, press CTRL + ALT + DELETE and log in

Configuration Tools

Introduction

When you have finished installing Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, a window titled Initial Configuration Tasks may come up:

The Initial Configuration Tasks window is used to perform the most fundamental or routine operations of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2. This window displays when the computer starts. If you don't want to come up like that, click the bottom check box. If it doesn't come up when the computer starts, to restore this window, click Start -> Run, type oobe and press Enter.

After installing the operating system, there are a few things you should (must) do before continuing:

  • You must make sure the computer is connected to the Internet
  • If this is the first computer, you must make it a domain controller (this is not a requirement if the computer will not be a domain controller; if you don't (yet) know what a domain controller is, don't worry about that now)

Assigning an IP Address to a Client

As you may know already, every client of a network needs an IP address so that other computers of the network can locate it. You may also know that a computer can get its IP address from a DHCP server or you can manually assign an IP address.

To assign an IP address to a computer that runs Microsoft Windows 7:, click Start -> Computer (or click Control Panel). On the left, right-click Network and click Properties. If you are using a laptop, click Wireless Network Connection. If you are using a desktop, click Local Area Connection.

To assign an IP address to a server (that runs Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2):

  • In the Initial Configuration Tasks, click Configure Networking
  • On the Taskbar, click Start and click Network. In the left frame, right-click Network and click Properties. Click Local Area Connection. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Properties

The following section is optional, especially if you are working on a small network. To create the IP address for the server:

  1. Click Start
  2. Right-click Network and click Properties

  3. Click Local Area Connection
  4. Click Details. Make note (on a piece of paper) of the address on the right side of IPv4 Address:



    (For our example, we are building a small network and we will just use a small range of IP addresses. In the real world or for a large network, you would need to actually know TCP/IP, design a range of IP addresses you plan to use, then assign those IP addresses, or design a way to assign the IP addresses to the computers)
  5. Click Close
  6. In the Local Area Connection Status dialog box, click Properties
  7. In the checked list box, click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)

  8. Click Properties
  9. Click Use the Following IP Address
  10. Type the IP address you want the server to use (for our example, and based on the above dialog box, we type 192.168.001.102) and press Tab
  11. Type the subnet mask (normally, it should be added automatically when you press Tab from the previous IP address text box)
  12. Type the default gateway address (use the first and the second octets of the IP address you had provided (such as 192.168) and use 001.001 for the other two bytes)
  13. Provide the Preferred DNS server address (we use 127.0.0.1 for our example) and the Alternate DNS Server address (we leave ours empty)

  14. Click OK
  15. Click Close
  16. Click Close

Creating a User Account

A computer network has to be managed. Some aspects can be done manually and some others electronically. In order to do anythinig, you must have a user account that can perform the necessary tasks. Such an account must have appropriate rights on the network.

To create the primary account to manage the network, on the server:

  1. Click Start -> Administrative Tools -> Active Directory Users and Computers (if a message box comes up, click Continue)
  2. If necessary, in the left frame, expand the name of the domain.
    Click Users
  3. In the left frame, right-click Users -> New -> User
  4. Type the first name of the user and press Tab. If you have a middle initial, type it and press Tab
  5. Type the last name
  6. Click the User Logon Name text box and type a user name. Here is an example:
  7. Click Next
  8. In the next page of the wizard, type the password as Password1
  9. Press Tab and type the same password. Here is an example:
  10. Click Next
  11. Click Finish

Making a User Account an Administrator

Some of the operations you will perform on the network require that the account have the appropriate rights (also called permissions). An administrator's account is one that can do anything on the network, such as creating users accounts or adding computers to the network.

To make a user account become an administrator, on the server:

  1. Click Start -> Administrative Tools -> Active Directory Users and Computers
  2. In the left frame, expand the domain's node
  3. Click Users
  4. Double-click the user name whose rights you want to manage (or right-click that user name and click Properties)
  5. Click Member Of
  6. Click Add...
  7. In the bottom text box (where the caret is blinking), type admin.
  8. Click Check Names

  9. Make sure Administrators is selected and underlined.



    Click OK
  10. Click OK

Logging In to the Network

To use the network, a user must log in. This is done by provinding a user name and a password. If this is the first time you are logging in, you may be asked to change your password.

If you are logged but you want to use another account, you can switch to another account. To do this:

  1. Click Start -> Switch User
  2. Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE
  3. Click Other User
  4. Type the user name (such as the one you created earlier) and press Tab
  5. Type the password (such as Password1 if you are continuing from the account created earlier) and press Enter
    1. If this is the first time you are logging in, a message will tell you that you must change the password. Click OK
    2. Type a good password for the account and press Tab
    3. Type the password again and press Enter.
      A message will inform you that your password has been changed
    4. Click OK

Optionally Creating a Computer Account

After creating a domain, you can can add client computers to it. In our examples, we will add workstations that run Microsoft Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate, or Enterprise. There are two actions to adding a client to a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 domain but only one is required.

Before physically or electronically adding a client to a domain, you can first create a computer account for it. To create a computer account, you can also click Start -> Administrative Tools -> Active Directory Users And Computers. This would open the Active Directory Users and Computers window. In the left frame, expand the name of the domain. Right-click the name of the domain -> New -> Computer. This would open the New Object - Computer dialog box. In the Computer Name text box, enter the name of the computer. The operating systems before Windows 2000 don't use very long names. Therefore, when naming a computer, keep this in mind and give a name made of fewer than 15 characters. After naming the computer, click Next twice and click Finish.

Instead of right-clicking the name of the domain, in the Active Directory Users And Computers, you can expand the name of the domain, right-click the Computers node -> New -> Computer. As mentioned already, in the first page of the New Object - Computer wizard, you can type a name for the computer. Here is an example:

Then click OK. After creating an account for a computer, you can add it to the domain. Actually, primarily creating an account for a computer is not required.

Checking the Computer Name and Domain

Always make sure you know the name of each computer on your network and the name of the domain it belongs to.

To check the name of the computer and its domain on a workstation:

  1. Click Start
  2. Right-click Computer and click Properties

To check the name of the server, in the Initial Configuration Tasks, look on the right side of Full computer Name

To check the name of the document of the server, look on the right side of Domain

:: Note

You can use an existing computer as a server

:: Note

If you are planning to use a lot of Microsoft products, you should consider getting an MSDN subscription. You can get more information from msdn.microsoft.com. Do a search on MSDN Subscription.

Joining a Domain

Preparing a Workstation

There are two primary ways you prepare a computer to join the domain:

  • Do Nothing: In this case, you would let the various wizards take care of everything. You would simply follow the instructions on the screen, click Next, OK, Finish when prompted to do so
  • Take care of things as much as possible: the disadvantage of this technique is that you should know what you are doing. The advantage is that you would know as much as possible, what you did where.

If you use the second option, you would for example assign an IP address to the server instead of the letting the DHCP server take care of that (Do Nothing option). In this case also, you must prepare the workstations to join the network. For example, you must assign an IP address to it. If you are working on a small network, TCP/IP is not the most difficult thing you will deal with (in fact you don't need to know that much about TCP/IP; you can follow other people's instructions and you will be fine).

To prepare a workstation to join the domain, on the workstation:

  1. Click Start -> Control Panel
  2. Click View Network Status and Tasks (or click Network and Internet, then Network and Sharing Center)
  3. Click Local Area Connection
  4. Click Properties
  5. In the Networking tab of the Local Area Connection Properties, in the checked list box, click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)

  6. Click Properties
  7. Click Use the Following IP Address
  8. Type the IP address you want the server to use. For example, add 2 (bits) to the last byte of the IP address you gave to the server and press Tab
  9. Type the subnet mask (it should be added automatically when you press Tab from the previous text box)
  10. Type the default gateway address (use the first and the second bytes of the IP address you had provided (such as 192.168) and use 001.001 for the other two bytes)
  11. For the Preferred DNS Server, type the same IP address as the server

  12. Click OK
  13. Click Close
  14. Click Close

Joining the Domain

To participateto a network, a workstation must be added to it. This is referred to as joining a domain. When joining a domain, if the computer you are adding doesn't have an account already, one would be created for it.

To join a domain using Microsoft Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate, or Enterprise:

  1. On the Taskbar, click Start, right-click My Computer and click Properties...

  2. Click Change Settings
  3. In the System Properties dialog box, click the Computer Name tab and click the Change... button.
    If the computer is running Microsoft Windows 7 Home Premium, the Domain radio button would be disabled, indicating that the computer cannot join a domain:
  4. In the Computer Name text box, enter the desired name of the computer. If you had already created an account in the domain for this computer, type that name
  5. In the Member Of section, click the Domain radio button
  6. Click the Domain text box and enter the name of the domain
  7. After specifying the name of the computer and the domain to join, click OK
  8. You would then be asked to provide a user name and a password for a user who has the permissions to let a computer join a domain.
    Type the name of the domain, followed by \ and followed by the user name of an account that can allow a computer to join a domain and press Tab
  9. Type the account's password
  10. After entering a user and a password, click OK. If you have the right to add computers to the domain, you would receive a Welcome message:
    Click OK
  11. You will be asked to restart the computer
    Click OK
  12. In the System Properties dialog box, click Close
  13. When asked to restart the computer, click Restart Now
  14. After the computer has restarted, press CTRL + ALT + DELETE to Log On
  15. Click Switch User
  16. Click Other User
  17. Type the user of a user who has an account in the network's domain and press Tab
  18. Type the password
  19. Click the green button with the right pointing arrow

Post-Installation

After letting a workstation join a domain, there are a few things you should take care of, such as Network Discovery. This time, you may be asked to provide a user name and password.

uburenganzira bwose bw'uru rubuga bwihariwe na Nshimiyumwungeri Antoine Marie Zacharie © 2014 -  Hébergé par Overblog